Abnormal brain oxygen homeostasis in an animal model of liver disease
AUTHORS: Hadjihambi A, Cudalbu C, Pierzchala K, Simicic S, Donnelly C, Konstantinou C, Davies N, Habtesion A, Gourine AV, Jalan R, Hosford PS
JHEP Reports, 4(8): 100509, August 2022
Background & Aims
Increased plasma ammonia concentration and consequent disruption of brain energy metabolism could underpin the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Brain energy homeostasis relies on effective maintenance of brain oxygenation, and dysregulation impairs neuronal function leading to cognitive impairment. We hypothesised that HE is associated with reduced brain oxygenation and we explored the potential role of ammonia as an underlying pathophysiological factor.
In a rat model of chronic liver disease with minimal HE (mHE; bile duct ligation [BDL]), brain tissue oxygen measurement, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to investigate how hyperammonaemia impacts oxygenation and metabolic substrate availability in the central nervous system. Ornithine phenylacetate (OP, OCR-002; Ocera Therapeutics, CA, USA) was used as an experimental treatment to reduce plasma ammonia concentration.
In BDL animals, glucose, lactate, and tissue oxygen concentration in the cerebral cortex were significantly lower than those in sham-operated controls. OP treatment corrected the hyperammonaemia and restored brain tissue oxygen. Although BDL animals were hypotensive, cortical tissue oxygen concentration was significantly improved by treatments that increased arterial blood pressure. Cerebrovascular reactivity to exogenously applied CO2 was found to be normal in BDL animals.
These data suggest that hyperammonaemia significantly decreases cortical oxygenation, potentially compromising brain energy metabolism. These findings have potential clinical implications for the treatment of patients with mHE.