Quantification in Musculoskeletal Imaging Using Computational Analysis and Machine Learning: Segmentation and Radiomics
AUTHORS: Bach Cuadra M, Favre J, Omoumi P
Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, 24(1): 50-64, February 2020
Although still limited in clinical practice, quantitative analysis is expected to increase the value of musculoskeletal (MSK) imaging. Segmentation aims at isolating the tissues and/or regions of interest in the image and is crucial to the extraction of quantitative features such as size, signal intensity, or image texture. These features may serve to support the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Radiomics refers to the process of extracting large amounts of features from radiologic images and combining them with clinical, biological, genetic, or any other type of complementary data to build diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive models. The advent of machine learning offers promising prospects for automatic segmentation and integration of large amounts of data. We present commonly used segmentation methods and describe the radiomics pipeline, highlighting the challenges to overcome for adoption in clinical practice. We provide some examples of applications from the MSK literature.